Book see also D. Second revised edition in the press.
July Shapur II r. It was fortunate for the Persians that during the childhood of Shapur II the Roman Empire had been involved in its own domestic affairs, as Constantine and other Caesars were battling each other for power.
He attacked Hajar, which was inhabited by the tribes of Tamim, Bakr b. While killing much of the tribal population, he also is said to have destroyed the wells to cut off the water supply as a further punishment to the Arabs.
Shapur II, having dealt harshly with the Arabs, consequently came to be known as Ar. This was part of the overall strategy of the Sasanians to secure the Persian Gulf. Some Arab tribes were forcibly displaced and relocated into the Sasanian Empire.
The Roman and Hunnic wars. When Constantius came to the thronewar began; Shapur II laid siege to Nisibis three times, and there was constant warfare, which did not go in favor of either side.
Around this time we first hear of the Hunnic tribes, who were probably the Kidarites Chinese Jiduolowho were encroaching onto the Sasanian Empire and also menacing the Gupta empire CE in India.
Shapur II, who had just returned from the Syrian front, was able to contain his eastern foes by making an alliance with their king, Grumbates, against the Romans Compareti,p. Also Ammianus Marcellinus This may mean that Shapur II was able to extract a large amount of gold and other precious metals from his defeated eastern enemies.
The city of Amida was pillaged and its population deported, because the son of King Grumbates was killed.
Inthe new Roman emperor, Julian, counter-attacked and won victories against Shapur II inand even laid siege to Ctesiphon. The capital, however, was not taken, because of disorder and pillaging among the Roman forces Libanius, We are told that among the Roman generals there was a Persian renegade by the name of Hormizd who commanded the cavalry.
Julian had destroyed his own naval ships, so that his forces would not retreat Libanius, Eutropius, who was an eyewitness to this campaign, affirms that Julian was killed at the hand of the enemy Breviarium Persian terms and conditions were conveyed by Surenas Surenwho agreed to have the mainly Christian population of Nisibis moved to Roman territory while the Persian standard was raised over the city Chronicon Paschale Jovian left Mesopotamia, and the Romans would not engage the Sasanians further, as Emperor Valens had to deal with Germanic tribes in the Balkans.
The Armenian and Georgian wars. The precarious internal struggle and the wavering loyalties of the naxarars, the king, and the clergy ushered in a turbulent period in Armenian history, and the sources for this period are confused.
Georgia was also placed under Persian control, where Shapur II installed Aspacures in eastern Georgia, but eventually the Roman emperor Valens succeeded in installing Sauromaces in western Georgia Amm. Induring the reign of Shapur II, there was a rise in the persecution of Christians, partly due to the Christianization of the Roman Empire and the identification of Christians as collaborators with the enemy Barnes,pp.
The problem with Christian loyalty toward the king of kings is also clear in that Shapur II had asked a double tax from the Christians during his war campaign against the Romans. From the time of Shapur II, Christian martyrologies become numerous, even though persecution is usually blamed on the Zoroastrian priests.
Not all Zoroastrian priests promoted the persecution of Christians; and, according to Syriac sources, in one case a mowbed named Pagrasp refused to order persecution—or else the king canceled orders of persecution Chronicle of Arbela, pp.
This was in reprisal for the killing of Zoroastrian priests and the attack on fire temples in the city by the Jewish population Widengren,pp. According to Denkard IV, once the Zoroastrian priest had proven the truthful doctrine: Shapur, the king of kings, son of Hormizd, induced all countrymen to orient themselves to god by disputation, and put forth all oral traditions for consideration and examination.
No doubt the threat of Christianity induced the king to not only persecute the Christians, but also create a strong Zoroastrian church for his co-religionists.Sh.
Shahbazi, “Early Sasanians’ Claim to Achaemenid Heritage,” Nāme-ye Irān-e Bāstan/The International Journal of Ancient Iranian Studies 1/1, , pp. M. Shaki, “The Dēnkard Account of the History of the Zoroastrian Scriptures,” Archiv Orientální 49, , pp.
Ṭabari, The History of .
urbanagricultureinitiative.com: The Authoritative Guide to Persepolis. () by Alireza Shapur Shahbazi and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices/5(2).
Alireza Shapour Shahbazi (4 September Shiraz - 15 July Walla Walla, Washington) (Persian: علیرضا شاپور شهبازی ) was a prominent Persian archeologist, Iranologist and a world expert on Achaemenid archeology.
Shahbazi got a BA degree in and an MA degree in East Asian archeology from SOAS. * Prof Alireza Shahbazi died in and buried in Shiraz next to Hafez* Prof Alireza Shahbazi's research works offered a detailed picture of Ancient Persian heritage to the world archeologists* The father of Perspolis: in the memory of the most prominent Achaemenid archeologist* The passing of A.
Shapur Shahbazi at "Encyclopædia Iranica", where many of his articles are available on-line. Essays of reluctant crusaders Crusades lesson plans and worksheets from essays of reluctant crusaders thousands of teacher Essays in memory of a.
shapur shahbazi. ŠĀPUR II (r. CE), the longest reigning monarch of the Sasanian dynasty ( CE). Legend has it that the courtiers and the clergy placed the crown on the womb of his mother when she was pregnant (Ḥamza Eṣfahāni, p. 50; Mojmal, p. 34), thus rendering him king literally from birth.Ṭabari states that the same courtiers, priests and officials that were in charge during his.