Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much. We just sprawled about exhaustedly, with home-made cigarettes sticking out of our scrubby faces.
Types[ edit ] In contemporary philosophy a distinction is made between critical philosophy of history also known as analytic and speculative philosophy of history.
The names of these types are derived from C. Broad 's distinction between critical philosophy and speculative philosophy. Sometimes critical philosophy of history is included under historiography.
Philosophy of history should not be confused with the history of philosophywhich is the study of the development of philosophical ideas in their historical context.
Herodotusa fifth-century BCE contemporary of Socratesbroke from the Homeric tradition of passing narrative from generation to generation in his work "Investigations" Ancient Greek: Herodotus, regarded by some[ who?
History was supposed to teach good examples for one to follow. The assumption that history "should teach good examples" influenced how writers produced history. Events of the past are just as likely to show bad examples that one should not follow, but classical historians would either not record such examples or would re-interpret them to support their assumption of history's purpose.
History was composed mainly of hagiographies of monarchs or of epic poetry describing heroic gestures such as The Song of Roland —about the Battle of Roncevaux Pass during Charlemagne 's first campaign to conquer the Iberian peninsula. In the fourteenth century, Ibn Khaldunwho is considered one of the fathers of the philosophy of history, discussed his philosophy of history and society in detail in his Muqaddimah His work represents a culmination of earlier works by medieval Islamic sociologists in the spheres of Islamic ethicspolitical scienceand historiographysuch as those of al-Farabi c.
He introduced a scientific method to the philosophy of history which Dawood considers something "totally new to his age" and he often referred to it as his "new science",  which is now associated with historiography.
His historical method also laid the groundwork for the observation of the role of the statecommunicationpropagandaand systematic bias in history. Starting with Fustel de Coulanges — and Theodor Mommsen —historical studies began to move towards a more modern scientific[ citation needed ] form.
In the Victorian erahistoriographers debated less whether history was intended to improve the readerand more on what causes turned history and how one could understand historical change.
Cyclical and linear history[ edit ] Further information: Social cycle theory Narrative history tends to follow an assumption of linear progression: Many ancient cultures held mythical concepts of history and of time that were not linear.
Such societies saw history as cyclical, with alternating Dark and Golden Ages. Plato taught the concept of the Great Yearand other Greeks spoke of aeons eons. Similar examples include the ancient doctrine of eternal returnwhich existed in Ancient Egyptin the Indian religionsamong the Greek Pythagoreans ' and in the Stoics ' conceptions.
According to Jainismthis world has no beginning or end but goes through cycles of upturns utsarpini and downturns avasarpini constantly. Many Greeks believed that just as mankind went through four stages of character during each rise and fall of history so did government.
The story of the Fall of Man from the Garden of Edenas recounted and elaborated in Judaism and Christianitypreserves traces of a moral cycle; this would give the basis for theodicies which attempt to reconcile the existence of evil in the world with the existence of a God, providing a global explanation of history with belief in a coming Messianic Age.
Some theodicies claimed that history had a progressive direction leading to an eschatological end, such as the Apocalypseorganized by a superior power. Leibniz based his explanation on the principle of sufficient reasonwhich states that anything that happens, does happen for a specific reason.
Thus, while man might see certain events as evil such as wars, epidemics and natural disasterssuch a judgement in fact only reflected human perception; if one adopted God's view"evil" events in fact only took place in the larger divine plan.
In this way theodicies explained the necessity of evil as a relative element that forms part of a larger plan of history. Leibniz's principle of sufficient reason was not, however, a gesture of fatalism.
Confronted with the antique problem of future contingentsLeibniz invented the theory of " compossible worlds ", distinguishing two types of necessity, to cope with the problem of determinism.
During the Renaissancecyclical conceptions of history would become common, with proponents illustrating decay and rebirth by pointing to the decline of the Roman Empire.Free demographics papers, essays, and research papers.
The Changing Demographics of Texas - In the United States, for the last four decades, from Richard Nixon to Ronald Reagan through the two Bush Presidencies, the Republican Party won the White House by amassing large margins among white voters (Lizza.).
A thematic bibliography of the history of Christianity. You are here: Bibliography of the History of Christianity (bgkr) Bibliography of Ancient, Medieval, and Early Modern Christian Heresy, Inquisition, and Witchcraft (bgher).
Bibliography of the Christian Middle Ages in Europe (bgstrv). Bibliography – History, Social Sciences, and Miscellaneous (bg). Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past. The term was coined by Voltaire. THE SPIKE. It was late-afternoon. Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open.
We were too tired to talk much. Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past. The term was coined by Voltaire.